【English知识体系】


English知识体系
By Zory
Create:2018-02-11
Last update:2018-05-20

零、约定

本文是英语蒟蒻Zory创作,人工手打百行万字,大部分在一周内完成,错误难免,若发现请谅解并可于评论区提出。
同以往一样,本文不适合用于入门,部分知识(大致上属于小学范畴)予以忽略。
请尊重知识产权,无论演绎或转载时请注明来源。

全文例句以E.g.开头,例句内容和所有完整英文句子均以斜体显示。
为简洁,其他缩写中的.均予以省略,半角()表示且仅表示其中内容并非必要。
通常情况下,do表示动词原形,did表示动词过去式,done表示过去分词,doing表示现在分词或动名词。
等效表达中,通常“=”右侧较容易理解。

以上内容正文中不再声明。

一、词法

1.1 名词复数

1.1.1 普通

 以f结尾改为ves,如leaf-leaves
 以y结尾改为ies,如berry-berries
 以o结尾,活物+es,死物+s,如photo-photos

1.1.2 特例

 proof-proofs证据
 hippo-hippos河马
 goose-geese鹅
 ox-oxen公牛
 German-Germans

1.1.3 常见不可数

 news,physics,maths,politics

1.1.4 合成名词

 只将主体词变复数(man,woman除外)
 如Frenchmen、potato noodles、shoe shops

1.1.5 单复同形

 名词:deer鹿,sheep,works作品,means手段
 国家的:Chinese,Japanese,Swiss

1.1.6 其他注意点

 The Olympic games are coming.

1.2 名词所有格

 表示某人的家时,home可省略
 E.g. He is at Mr.Green’s.
 某些词用to表示对应、独一无二
 E.g. It is the key to that door.
 双重所有格强调只占一部分
 E.g. He is a friend of Tom’s.

1.3 数词

1.3.1 基数词

 单位:hundred,thousand,million,billion
 小数:与中文类似,“point”后数字按顺序读出,一般视为复数
 分数:可看做名词,所以有时中间有-
 xx世纪xx年代:in the 基数词 基数词复数
  1) in the sixteen fifties
  2) in the 1550s
  3) in the 1550’s
 年纪:at the age of 基数词

1.3.2 序数词

 a/an+序+sth 又、再一个

1.3.3 倍数

 次数=once,twice,xxx times
 1)次数+名词 E.g. The sun is many times the size of the moon.
 2)动词+次数 E.g. The pants have shortened twice.
 3)动词+by+分数 E.g. He raised it by a third.

1.3.4 四则运算

 除加法中and外,其他的运算结果表示为单数
 通用结果用equal、is表示,另加法可用make,减法可用leave
 1)加法:2 plus/and 8、add 2 and 8
 2)减法:8 minus 2、2 from 8、subtract 2 from 8
 3)乘法:2 multiplued by 8、2 times 8、multiply 2 by 8
 4)除法:8 divided by 2、8 over 2、divide 8 by 2

1.4 冠词

1.4.1 定冠词

1.4.2 不定冠词

 对于单个字母发音是元音:Mr Li has one fox.

1.4.3 零冠词

 职务(如president)

1.5 形容词副词adj/adv

1.5.1 比较级与最高级

1.5.2 倍数

1.5.3 多形容词顺序

1.6 限定词

1.6.1 分类

 单数:another,many/such a
 复数:many,few,several,a number of,a lot of,lots of
 不可数:much,little,a bit of,a great amount of,a great deal of
 皆可:a lot of,lots of
 E.g. Many a good man has been destroyed by drink.

1.6.2 other,others,the other,the others,another

 other表示“其他一些”,another表示“另一个”
 the other表示“剩下全部”,只有两个时可以翻译为“另一个”,即“one…the other”
 E.g. Some boys went to the cinema; other boys went swimming.
 它们也可以作代词来使用,这时原本后面的代词省略,如果是复数还要加上s(此项another除外)
 E.g. Some boys went to the cinema; others went swimming.

1.6.3 few,little

 only a few=few,only a little=little
 quite a few=many,quite a little=much

1.7 代词pron

1.7.1 等效表达

 1.互相each other=one another
 2.多一个another one=one more
 3.剩下全部the others=the rest

1.7.2 each,every

 1).基本区别
 
|单词|对象个数|词性|用法|强调性|
|:-:|:-:|:-:|:-:|:-:|
|each (of)|2+|可作形容词、副词、代词|可单独each of boys|强调个体|
|every|3+|可作形容词|不可单独every one of boys|强调整体|

 2).each特长
 each other
 3).every特长
 every two days=every other day(不常用second)
 every three days=every third day

1.7.3 none,no one

单词 意思 针对性
none 没有人、物 回答How many/much
no one 没有人 回答Who/anybody

1.8 介词prep

1.8.1 时间

 1)固定搭配at daybreak/sunrise/dawn/noon/dust/sunset/night
 2)morning,afternoon,evening前有任何词,介词用on
 3)年月日及其部分,有日on,每日in

1.8.2 地点方位

 1)穿过:across横穿表面,through从内部穿过
 2)地区平面:in内部,to外部,on接壤
 E.g. Japan is to the east of China.
 3)
|情况|上面|下面|
|:-:|:-:|:-:|
|正上、下方且并不接触|over|under|
|上、下方且不接触|on|beneath|
|上、下方|above|below|

1.8.3 方式

 in 语言、材料、颜色
 by 方法、交通工具
 with 具体工具、四肢

二、动词

2.1 使役动词

 一感二听三让四看
 feel
 listen to,hear
 let,make,have
 see,watch,notice,observe
 以上动词主动是可接不定式省略to,被动要还原

2.2 情态动词

 1)may表不妨
 may/might as well do
 E.g. If that is the case, we may as well try.
 2)can,be able to
 can 强调当前能力
 be able to 强调通过努力能达到的能力

2.3 完成时

 1)没有明确时间的过去,基本用现在完成时
 2)been to去某地,回来了;gone to去某地没回来;been in一直待在某地(How long提问)
 3)当for、since时,要将短暂性动词变为延续性

2.4 被动语态

 1)不及物动词没有被动语态
 2)问主语Who was he killed by?

2.5 非谓语

E.g. When mom came back, the kids pretended to be sleeping.

2.5.1 分词作状语

 有共同逻辑主语时,可以省略主语和多余的be动词
 E.g. Seeing from the top of the hill, we could …
 E.g. Seen from the top of the hill, the city …

2.5.2 分词作定语

 E.g. He is one of those people who have been invited.
 E.g. He is one of those invited.

2.6 现在完成进行时

 本时态无被动。
 适用于:1.一直在进行 2.过去到现在有规律发生
 与现在完成时区别:不强调过去造成
 E.g. The tap has been running for 3 days.
 E.g. We have going to Guangzhou by the light reilway there days.

三、句式

3.1 基本句型

3.1.1 主谓

 谓语=不及物动词(vi)

3.1.2 主谓宾

 谓语=及物动词(vt)或者 不及物动词+介词

3.1.3 主系表

 系动词=be、感官、变化
 go mad/hungry中go表变化

3.1.4 主谓双宾

 双宾的顺序可以变化

3.1.5 主谓宾宾补

 宾补即宾语补足语,可以是:不定式,原型,现在分词,过去分词

3.2 感叹句

 形式复杂多变,仅介绍判断引导词的方法:
 去掉主语谓语,剩余部分是名词则What否则How

3.3 名词性宾语从句

位置:动词、介词后
时态:主句从句对应
语序:默认陈述语序,问主语时保留疑问语序

3.3.1 if,whether

 whether>if:有or (not);在介词后;在to do前。
 E.g. I don’t know whether to stay.

3.4 副词性状语从句

从句一般没有将来时
whenever>=no matter when
however>=no matter how

3.4.1 时间

 1) while强调:正当、对比;as强调:一边一边
 2) once=as soon as,一旦
 3) hardly…when=no sooner…than,一旦、刚
 E.g. Jim刚坐到沙发上就有人敲门。
 Jim had hardly sat on the sofa when someone knocked at the door.
 当hardly/no sooner提到句首,主句部分倒装
 No sooner had Jim sat on the sofa than someone knocked at the door.
 4) till,until
 从句在主句前面:until
 Until在句首,从句部分倒装
 强调结构(不在句首):It be not until xxx,that xxx.

3.4.2 地点

3.4.3 原因

 因果关系强烈次序:
 1.because
 2.as(由于),Since(既然,只能在主句前),now that(既然)
 3.for(证明观点,不能在句首)

3.4.4 条件

 1) in case (that) … 如果
 E.g. In case the house burns, we will get money.
 2) in condition that=if

3.4.5 目的

 so that,对应词组so as to do
 in order that,对应词组in order to
 for fear that=in case=lest,以防,常用类似虚拟语气结构
 E.g. Take an umbrella, for fear that it (should) rain.
 放句首:In order that
 另外,与结果状语从句不同的是,从句通常有情态动词

3.4.6 结果

 通常有逗号隔开主句从句
 only to find 不料

3.4.7 比较

3.4.8 方式

 as=as though=as if
 E.g. Treat sister as though she were a stranger.

3.4.9 让步

 as,even if,even though 即使,免冠词,对应词组in spite of
 (免冠词,little(与as)部分倒装)
 E.g. Little boy as he is, he can do it by himself.

3.5 形容词性定语从句

3.5.1 关系代词

位置 指人 指物
主语 who/that which/that
宾语 whom/who/(that) which/(that)
定语 whose=of whom whose=of which
有介词 whom which

 A whose B=A’s B=B of A
 E.g. We live in a house whose windows open to the south.

 介词+which<=>where/why/when

3.5.2 非限制性

 用于先行词范围已经不能缩小,定语从句表示补充说明。
 She dislikes people who look down on her.
 I made a card for mom, who loves me most.
 as可在句首,which不行,不能用that

3.5.3 强调句型

 It be 被强调成分 that/who 其他
 E.g. It’s the third time that you’ve arrived late.

3.5.4 只能用that

 1)先行词是不定代词
 2)先行词受限定词、序数词、最高级修饰
 3)先行词被the very(正是)、the only、the last修饰
 4)先行词作表语,E.g. He doesn’t seem to be the man (that) he was ten years ago.
 5)先行词有人也有物
 E.g. We know nothing that happened here yesterday.

3.5.5 不能用that

 1)介词后
 2)非限制性

四、非谓语动词

4.1 动词不定式

 目的

4.2 现在分词

 主动、进行

4.3 过去分词

 被动、完成

五、语法现象

5.1 双写末尾辅音字母

 情况:改变时态或形容词副词变比较级和最高级时
 条件:重读闭音节(重读音节,最后只有一个辅音字母,元音字母发短元音)

5.2 主将从现

 当主句是一般将来时、情态动词或祈使句,其状语从句用一般现在时或现在完成时表将来。
 E.g. Don’t get off the bus, until it has stopped.

5.3 主谓一致

5.3.1 more than one+名词单数

 谓语用单数
 E.g. More than one boy gets the flower.

5.3.2 many a+名词单数

 谓语用单数
 E.g. Many a student has a good time.

5.3.3 表部分(all,most,percent)+of+名词

 谓语根据名词而非计算结果而定
 E.g. Half of these two eggs are bad.

5.3.4 all+名词

 指人时,动词用复数;指物时,动词用单数。
 E.g. “All are here and all is going well.*所有人全部到场了,一切进展顺利

5.3.5 each作主语的同位语

 谓语由主语来决定,与each无关.
 E.g. They each have a bike.

5.3.6 One or two more+复数名词

 谓语用复数
 E.g. One or two persons are sent there.派一两个人到那儿

5.4 否定前置

 条件:第一人称作主语
 适用于believe/think/guess/suppose

5.5 就近原则

 either … or …
 neither … nor …
 not only … but also …
 there be …

5.6 反义疑问句

 E.g. There will be a basketball match tomorrow, won’t there?
 E.g. You have never been to Beijing, have you?
 E.g. I don’t think you are right, are you?

5.7 过去直接引语变现在间接引语

 … ago=>… before
 last …=>the … before
 yesterday=>the day before
 today=>that day
 now=>then
 tomorrow=>the next day
 next …=the next …

5.8 强调句

5.9 倒装

5.9.1 部分倒装

 通常情况下,改为疑问语序
 放句首时所引导从句部分倒装:Never,Seldom,Neither…nor,Hardly..when,No sooner…than,Few,Little

5.9.2 完全倒装

六、其他近义表达

6.1 几乎等效

 to begin with=first
 be proud of=be pride in
 take the second turning on the left=turn left at the second crossing

6.2 不等效

6.2.1 spend,cost,take,pay

 sb spend time on th
 sb spend money on/for sth
 sb spend time/money in doing sth
 sb pay (sb) (money) for sth/sb
 sb pay money back偿还
 sb pay off sth/sb还清
 sth cost (sb) time/money
 sth take sb time
 E.g. I have to pay them 20 pounds for this room each month.

6.2.2 sometime,sometimes,some time,some times

 sometime某时
 sometimes有时
 some time一段时间
 some times几次、几倍

6.2.3 be going to,will

 表示有迹象或主观意向:be going to
 后面接表位移动词:will

6.2.4 let’s do,let us do

 例如:let’s go我们走吧,let us go请允许我们离开

6.2.5 besides,except

 besides 除了…以外还有…
 except 除外

6.2.6 day after day,day by day

 day after day 日复一日,无变化
 day by day 一天天地,有变化

6.2.7 by accident,by mistake,by chance

 by accident 意外地
 by mistake 失误地
 by chance 偶然地,侥幸地

6.2.8 exercise,practice

 exercise 运动
 exercises 练习
 practice 反复练习

6.2.9 trip,journey,voyage,travel

 trip 短途旅行
 journey 长征
 voyage 海上航行
 travel 旅行

6.2.10 repait,mend,fix

 repair 损坏到不能使用
 mend 小物件缝补
 fix 小调整

6.2.11 so,such

 ①通常情况下,so+adj/adv,such+n
 ②在可数名词单数且名词被形容词修饰时,such a good gril=so good a girl
 ③so little(仅表示少)/few/many/much

6.2.12 knock,hit,beat,strike

 knock 敲
 hit 快击
 beat 律动
 strike 重击

6.2.13 sure,certain

 I’m sure/certain that …
 It’s certain that …

七、其他单词用法

7.1 die

 die of 内因
 die from 外因

7.2 join

 join 加入组织
 join in 参加活动
 join part in 参与会议、战争

7.3 fight

 fight for A 为A而战
 fight against A 与A作斗争
 fight with A 与A一起作战 或 与A战斗

7.4 add

 sth add to=increase
 sb add … to …
 add up to=in total

7.5 used

 used to do 过去常常做
 be/get used to doing 习惯做

7.6 live

 live on 以…为食
 live by 靠…谋生

7.7 change

 change into 变成
 change for 更换

7.8 prefer

 prefer doing A to doing B
 prefer to do A (rather) than do B
 另:would rather

7.9 afraid

 be afraid to do 不敢做
 be afraid of doing 不情愿发生
 E.g. He is afraid to touch the snake.
 E.g. He is afraid of being beaten by his father.

7.10 drop in顺便拜访

 drop in on=call on +sb
 drop in at=call at +sp

7.11 spend

 spend on n
 spend (in) doing

7.12 keep

 keep on doing 反复做
 keep doing=stick to do 坚持做

7.13 mean

 mean to do 打算做
 mean doing sth 意味着

7.14 regret

 regret to do 抱歉
 regret doing 后悔

7.15 help

 help (to) do 帮助
 can’t help doing 情不自禁

7.16 stick

 stick to 粘着,坚持
 stick by 支持某人,履行承诺
 be stuck with 被纠缠
 be suck on 迷上某人
 后面接的都是doing、sth、sb

八、其他词组

8.1 宾语仅动名词单词

 1.finish 2.enjoy 3.mind 4.practice 5.suggest
 6.admit采纳 7.deny抵赖 8.consider 9.avoid避免 10.imagine
 11.delay 12.keep 13.miss 14.escape逃脱

8.2 宾语仅动名词词组

8.2.1 to作介词

 1.look forward to
 2.prefer doing to doing
 3.be used to
 4.devote oneself to奉献
 5.stick to
 6.object to反对
 7.admit to
 8.give one’s mind to 专心
9.lend to

8.2.2 其他

 1.give up 2.be busy/worth
 3.have fun (in) 4.feel like
5.avoid 6.consider
7.suggest
8.deny
9.admit

8.3 宾语仅不定式

 1.promise 2.prefer宁愿 3.offer提供
 4.manage 5.afford承担 6.arrange安排
 7.hesitate犹豫 8.pretend假装 9.would like
10.afford 11.pretend假装

8.1 介词

1.

8.2 动词

 take off 起飞、脱下
 make up one’s mind to do 使人下定决心

8.3 形容词

8.4 其他

九、习惯用语

9.1 俗语

 熟能生巧 Practice makes perfect.
 有志者,事竟成 Where there is a will, there is a way.
 一切皆有可能 Everything is possible.
 以其人之道还治其人之身 Deal with a man as he deals with you.
 患难见真情 A friend in need is a friend indeed.

9.2 其他

9.2.1 表反问

 Why not=Why don’t you +do
 How about +doing

9.2.2 想法

 How does he like A=What does he think of A

十、虚拟语气

表达”与实际情况相反的虚构假设”用were式虚拟:时态倒退,be用were
表达”祈使愿望”用be式虚拟:谓语是(should) do

10.1.1 惊奇、怀疑、不满

 except,believe,think
 从句谓语用should do,注意should不省略,表意料之外

十一、其他

11.1 常用日期

 January February March April May June July August September October November December
 Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday

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